The wake of a flapping foil is the basic model representing the propulsive mechanism of swimming and flying animals that use wings, fins, and body oscillations to drive their locomotion. The reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is one of the landmark features of such wakes, since it is associated to the onset of thrust generation. The vortex shedding frequency is clocked by the flapping motion but, in a realistic model the force production dynamics is intimately linked to the elastic response of the flapping structure and the resonance between the different frequencies involved has been invoked in the literature to explain efficient flapping regimes. Here we show, using a wind tunnel experiment and hydrodynamic stability analysis, that thrust peaks occur when the wake resonant frequency is tuned with the foil elastic dynamics.
For fish, swimming in group may be favorable to individuals. Several works reported that in a fish school, individuals sense and adjust their relative position to prevent collisions and maintain the group formation. Also, from a hydrodynamic perspective, relative-position and kinematic synchronisation between adjacent fish may considerably influence their swimming performance. Fish may sense the relative-position and tail-beat phase difference with their neighbors using both vision and the lateral-line system, however, when swimming in dark or turbid environments, visual information may become unavailable. To understand how lateral-line sensing can enable fish to judge the relative-position and phase-difference with their neighbors, in this study, based on a verified three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach, we simulated two fish swimming adjacently with various configurations. The lateral-line signal was obtained by sampling the surface hydrodynamic stress. The sensed signal was processed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which is robust to turbulence and environmental flow. By examining the lateral-line pressure and shear-stress signals in the frequency domain, various states of the neighboring fish were parametrically identified. Our results reveal that the FFT-processed lateral-line signals in one fish may potentially reflect the relative-position, phase-differences, and the tail-beat frequency of its neighbor. Our results shed light on the fluid dynamical aspects of the lateral-line sensing mechanism used by fish. Furthermore, the presented approach based on FFT is especially suitable for applications in bioinspired swimming robotics. We provide suggestions for the design of artificial systems consisting of multiple stress sensors for robotic fish to improve their performance in collective operation.
Hydrodynamical Fingerprint of a Neighbour in a Fish Lateral Line
G. Li, D. Kolomenskiy, H. Liu, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana Frontiers in Robotics and AI: Bio-Inspired Robotics section 9, 825889 (2022)
Two papers from the team were presented at the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference in Plymouth, UK!
Ocean wave transmission, reflection and absorption by rows of vertical structures along the coastline
A. Mérigaud, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
In Proceedings of the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 5-9th Sept 2021, Plymouth, UK.
On the interaction of surface water waves and fully-submerged elastic plates
G. Polly, A. Mérigaud, R. Alhage, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
In Proceedings of the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 5-9th Sept 2021, Plymouth, UK.
With a view to numerical modelling and optimisation of wave energy farms, a simple recursive formulation is employed to solve for the reflection and transmission of plane water waves by a number of rows of vertical obstacles, under the wide-spacing approximation. The proposed recursive formulation relies on the ‘concatenation’ of any two sets of obstacles, for which the reflection–transmission problem is already resolved. Furthermore, the obstacles are allowed to move in any combination of pitch and surge. The proposed recursive model is validated by means of physical experiments in a small-scale wave flume, whereby waves are reflected and transmitted by one, two and three rows of vertical, flexible blades, taking into account dissipation within the fluid along the wave propagation direction. For the special case of identical, regularly spaced rows, under the adopted formalism, distinct theoretical behaviours are highlighted, depending on whether or not individual obstacles absorb (or dissipate) energy as they interact with incoming waves. In a ‘non-dissipative’ case, the well known fact that discrete values of the row-to-row distance 𝐿 completely cancel reflection is retrieved, as well as the existence of ‘band-gap’ intervals, i.e. intervals for 𝐿 where reflection is high, with maximum reflection occurring away from the Bragg condition. In contrast, when the obstacles dissipate or absorb energy as they interact with the fluid, reflection is always non-zero, and, as the number of rows tends to infinity, forms marked Bragg peaks, reaching unity when 𝐿 is a multiple of half a wavelength.
A wide-spacing approximation model for the reflection and transmission of water waves over an array of vertical obstacles
A. Mérigaud, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 923, A2 (2021)
We report the results of an experimental investigation into the decay of turbulence in plane Couette–Poiseuille flow using ‘quench’ experiments where the flow laminarises after a sudden reduction in Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒. Specifically, we study the velocity field in the streamwise–spanwise plane. We show that the spanwise velocity containing rolls decays faster than the streamwise velocity, which displays elongated regions of higher or lower velocity called streaks. At final Reynolds numbers above 425, the decay of streaks displays two stages: first a slow decay when rolls are present and secondly a more rapid decay of streaks alone. The difference in behaviour results from the regeneration of streaks by rolls, called the lift-up effect. We define the turbulent fraction as the portion of the flow containing turbulence and this is estimated by thresholding the spanwise velocity component. It decreases linearly with time in the whole range of final 𝑅𝑒. The corresponding decay slope increases linearly with final 𝑅𝑒. The extrapolated value at which this decay slope vanishes is 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑧≈656±10, close to 𝑅𝑒𝑔≈670 at which turbulence is self-sustained. The decay of the energy computed from the spanwise velocity component is found to be exponential. The corresponding decay rate increases linearly with 𝑅𝑒, with an extrapolated vanishing value at 𝑅𝑒𝐴𝑧≈688±10. This value is also close to the value at which the turbulence is self-sustained, showing that valuable information on the transition can be obtained over a wide range of 𝑅𝑒.
Decay of streaks and rolls in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow
T. Liu, B. Semin, L. Klotz, R. Godoy-Diana, J. E. Wesfreid & T. Mullin
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 915, A65 (2021)
Body and caudal fin undulations are a widespread locomotion strategy in fish, and their swimming kinematics is usually described by a characteristic frequency and amplitude of the tail-beat oscillation. In some cases, fish use intermittent gaits, where a single frequency is not enough to fully describe their kinematics. Energy efficiency arguments have been invoked in the literature to explain this so-called burst-and-coast regime but well controlled experimental data are scarce. Here we report on an experiment with burst-and-coast swimmers and a numerical model based on the observations to show that: (1) fish modulate a unique intrinsic cycle to sustain the demanded speed by modifying the bursting to coasting ratio while maintaining the duration of the cycle nearly constant; and (2) the chosen kinematics correspond to energy-saving gaits over the range of swimming speeds tested.
Burst-and-coast swimmers optimize gait by adapting unique intrinsic cycle
G. Li, I. Ashraf, B. François, D. Kolomenskiy, F. Lechenault, R. Godoy-Diana & B. Thiria
Communications Biology 4, 40 (2021)
Behind the paper blog post: https://ecoevocommunity.nature.com/posts/on-the-intermittent-tail-beat-kinematics-in-steady-swimming-fish
On the fluid dynamical effects of synchronization in side-by-side swimmers
R. Godoy-Diana, J. Vacher, V. Raspa & B. Thiria
Biomimetics 4(4), 77 (2019)
(in the Special issue “Fluid Dynamic Interactions in Biological and Bioinspired Propulsion”, Editors K. W. Moored and G. V. Lauder)
We examined experimentally the in-phase and anti-phase synchronized swimming of two self-propelled independent flexible foils swimming side-by-side in a water tank. The foils are actuated by pitching oscillations at one extremity—the head of the swimmers—and the flow engendered by their undulations is analyzed using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry in their frontal symmetry plane. Following recent observations on the behavior of real fish, we focus on the comparison between in-phase and anti-phase actuation by fixing all other geometric and kinematic parameters. We show that swimming with a neighbor is beneficial for both synchronizations tested, as compared to swimming alone, with an advantage for the anti-phase synchronization. We show that the advantage of anti-phase synchronization in terms of swimming performance for the two-foil “school” results from the emergence of a periodic coherent jet between the two swimmers.
On the energetics and stability of a minimal fish school
G. Li, D. Kolomenskiy, H. Liu, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
PLoS ONE 14(8): e0215265 (2019)
On the interference of vorticity and pressure fields of a minimal fish school
G. Li, D. Kolomenskiy, H. Liu, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
Journal of Aero Aqua Bio-mechanisms 8 (1), 27-33 (2019)
The physical basis for fish schooling is examined using three-dimensional numerical simulations of a pair of swimming fish, with kinematics and geometry obtained from experimental data. Energy expenditure and efficiency are evaluated using a cost of transport function, while the effect of schooling on the stability of each swimmer is examined by probing the lateral force and the lateral and longitudinal force fluctuations. We construct full maps of the aforementioned quantities as functions of the spatial pattern of the swimming fish pair and show that both energy expenditure and stability can be invoked as possible reasons for the swimming patterns and tail-beat synchronization observed in real fish. Our results suggest that high cost of transport zones should be avoided by the fish. Wake capture may be energetically unfavorable in the absence of kinematic adjustment. We hereby hypothesize that fish may restrain from wake capturing and, instead, adopt side-to-side configuration as a conservative strategy, when the conditions of wake energy harvesting are not satisfied. To maintain a stable school configuration, compromise between propulsive efficiency and stability, as well as between school members, ought to be considered.
C. Nové-Josserand, R. Godoy-Diana, & B. Thiria
Physical Review Applied 11, 034054 (2019)
Considerable work has been undertaken for the improvement of wave-energy converters and array design. It has recently been suggested that by extracting wave energy, these farms could also serve to protect shorelines from wave damage. The present work focuses on the local effects of wave-structure interactions within an array of oscillating absorbers to optimize global effects, such as reflection, damping, and energy absorption. We use a model system of flexible blades, subjected to monochromatic waves, and develop a simplified one-dimensional model to predict optimal configurations, depending on various parameters, which include the number of blades, their spacing, and their flexibility. Optimal configurations are found to be close to regular patterns, and the impact of array configurations is shown to be limited regarding wave dissipation, mainly due to a competition between reflection and absorption.
Transient locomotion under water is highly constrained by drag and added mass, yet some aquatic snakes catch their prey using a fast forward acceleration, with the mouth opened. These aquatic snakes show a convergence of their head shape in comparison with closely related species that do not forage under water. As both drag and added mass are related to some extent to the shape of the moving object, we explored how shape impacts the hydrodynamic forces applied to the head of a snake during a prey capture event. We compared two 3D- Continue reading “Hydrodynamics of the frontal strike in aquatic snakes”
Image credit: T. Engels (see also Engels et al. Physical Review Fluids 4, 013103, 2019)
Insect and insect-inspired aerodynamics: unsteadiness, structural mechanics and flight control
R. Bomphrey & R. Godoy-Diana
Current Opinion in Insect Science 30, 26–32 (2018)
Flying insects impress by their versatility and have been a recurrent source of inspiration for engineering devices. A large body of literature has focused on various aspects of insect flight, with an essential part dedicated to the dynamics of flapping wings and their intrinsically unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Insect wings flex during flight and a better understanding of structural mechanics and aeroelasticity is emerging. Most recently, insights from solid and fluid mechanics have been integrated with physiological measurements from visual and mechanosensors in the context of flight control in steady airs and through turbulent conditions. We review the key recent advances concerning flight in unsteady environments and how the multi-body mechanics of the insect structure — wings and body — are at the core of the flight control question. The issues herein should be considered when applying bio-informed design principles to robotic flapping wings.
PhD defense on October 18th, 2018, 2:30pm, at the PMMH meeting room (Sorbonne Université, Barre Cassan, Bât. A 1er Étage, 7 Quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris).
Acoustic confinement of Escherichia coli: The impact on biofilm formation
Brownian or self-propelled particles in aqueous suspensions can be trapped by acoustic fields generated by piezoelectric transducers usually at frequencies in the Megahertz. The obtained confinement allows the study of rich collective behaviours like clustering or spreading dynamics in microgravity-like conditions. The acoustic field induces the levitation of self-propelled particles and provides secondary lateral forces to capture them at nodal planes. Here, we give a step forward in the field Continue reading “PhD defense: Salomé Gutiérrez-Ramos. Acoustic confinement of Escherichia coli: The impact on biofilm formation”
PhD defense on October 1st, 2018, 2:30pm, at the PMMH meeting room (Sorbonne Université, Barre Cassan, Bât. A 1er Étage, 7 Quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris).
Converting wave energy from fluid–elasticity interactions
Understanding the mechanisms involved in wave-structure interactions is of high interest for the development of efficient wave energy harvesters as well as for coastal management. In this thesis, we study the interactions of surface waves with a model array of slender flexible structures, in view of developing an efficient system for both attenuating and harvesting wave energy. The presented results are based around experimental investigations, by means of small scale facilities, in which the spatial arrangement of the flexible objects is the key parameter of Continue reading “Clotilde Nové-Josserand’s PhD defense. Converting wave energy from fluid–elasticity interactions”
Forced wakes far from threshold: Stuart–Landau equation applied to experimental data
S. Boury, B. Thiria, R. Godoy-Diana, G. Artana, J. E. Wesfreid, and J. D’Adamo
Physical Review Fluids 3, 091901(R) (2018)
We studied with the Stuart-Landau (SL) amplitude equation, a wake flow control scenario using experimental data from a cylinder wake forced by plasma actuators. Given the formal framework recently discussed by Gallaire et al. [Fluid Dyn. Res. 48, 061401 (2016)] on pushing amplitude equations far from threshold, we analyze experimental data of a forced wake in order to test the SL reduced order model. Linear stability theory and global mode concepts are used to determine the SL parameters. The extension to forced wakes of the SL model had been proposed by Thira and Wesfreid [J. Fluid Mech. 579, 137 (2007)] in the context of their study on stability properties, but its employment still remained an open question. Here, we show that a forced wake at a Reynolds number far from the first threshold can also attain the critical behavior described by the SL model.
PhD defense on April 4th, 2018, 3pm, at the new PMMH meeting room (Sorbonne Université, Barre Cassan, Bât. A 1er Étage, 7 Quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris).
Interactions in Collective Fish Swimming
The question of how individuals in a population organise when living in groups arises for systems as different as a swarm of microorganisms or a flock of seagulls; and the different patterns for moving collectively involve a complex interaction of a wide spectrum of reasons, such as evading predators, optimising food prospection or diminishing energy consumption. The basic ingredient in such problems is the communication mechanism between individuals, that is to say, the way in which two neighbours sense each other, constituting the fabric of social behaviour. In this work we studied the case of fish schooling using a popular aquarium fish, the red nose tetra fish Hemigrammus bleheri. These fish are known to swim in highly cohesive groups and to sense each other both visually and through the lateral line, a system of organs based on the ability of hair cells to detect movement in their environment. In our experiments Continue reading “Intesaaf Ashraf’s PhD defense. Interactions in Collective Fish Swimming”
Surface wave energy absorption by a partially submerged bio-inspired canopy
C. Nové-Josserand, F. Castro Hebrero, L.-M. Petit, W. Megill, R. Godoy-Diana & B. Thiria
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics 13 036006 (2018)
Aquatic plants are known to protect coastlines and riverbeds from erosion by damping waves and fluid flow. These flexible structures absorb the fluid-borne energy of an incoming fluid by deforming mechanically. In this paper we focus on the mechanisms involved in these fluid-elasticity interactions, as an efficient energy harvesting system, using an experimental canopy model in a wave tank.We study an array of partially-submerged flexible structures that are subjected to the action of a surface wave field, investigating in particular the role of spacing between the elements of the array on the ability of our system to absorb energy from the flow. The energy absorption potential of the canopy model is examined using global wave height measurements for the wave field and local measurements of the elastic energy based on the kinematics of each element of the canopy. We study different canopy arrays and show in particular that flexibility improves wave damping by around 40%, for which half is potentially harvestable.
On the diverse roles of fluid dynamic drag in animal swimming and flying
R. Godoy-Diana & B. Thiria
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15 20170715 (2018)
Questions of energy dissipation or friction appear immediately when addressing the problem of a body moving in a fluid. For the most simple problems, involving a constant steady propulsive force on the body, a straightforward relation can be established balancing this driving force with a skin friction or form drag, depending on the Reynolds number and body geometry. This elementary relation closes the full dynamical problem and sets, for instance, average cruising velocity or energy cost. Continue reading “Review paper: Fluid dynamic drag in animal swimming and flying”
ESPCI proposes a brand new international doctoral programme – UPtoPARIS: More info here: https://www.upto.paris/-upTo-paris-.html
The first call closes on February 28th, 2018. Our project on bio-inspired wave-energy conversion is one of the projects selected (project page here).
Bio-inspired elastic structures for ocean wave energy conversion
The purpose of this project is to study a surface wave absorbing system with potential for both coastal erosion control and renewable energy production. The system is inspired by the fluid flow calming effects of aquatic vegetation in near-shore and riverine environments. The system consists of an ensemble of flexible slender structures mimicking an underwater canopy whose collective dynamics is forced by the action of the waves. The reconfiguration of slender structures by their interaction with an external flow has been a vibrant subject of research in the past decade, and applications abound in this archetype of interdisciplinary subject where biology, physics and engineering meet. Continue reading “UPtoPARIS”
Deadline watch for 2018…
TAU-ESPCI Winter School on Active Matter
Jan. 28 – Feb 1, 2018, Tel Aviv, Deadline: Nov 1, 2017
APS March Meeting 2018
March 5-9, 2018, Los Angeles, CA, Deadline: November 3, 2017
Continue reading “Conferences, workshops, etc. 2018”
PhD defense on November 10th, at 2pm, in the auditorium of the Grande Galerie de l’Evolution.
Water as a driver of evolution: the example of aquatic snakes
1. UMR 7179, CNRS-MNHN, Mécanismes adaptatifs et Evolution, équipe FUNEVOL, Département d’Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité. Pavillon d’anatomie comparée, 55 rue Buffon, case postale 55, 75231 Paris cedex 5, France.
2. UMR 7636, CNRS, ESPCI Paris–PSL Research University, Sorbonne Université, U Paris Diderot, Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes. 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France
Animal-environment interactions are determinant in driving the evolution of phenotypic variation. Most aquatic animals have developed adaptations to overcome the physical constraints inherent to an aquatic lifestyle and particularly to motion in water. These constraints are the drag and the added mass if an acceleration is involved in the motion, such as during prey capture. The aim of this project is to evaluate the role of water as a potential driver of evolution of aquatic snakes by focusing on morphological and behavioral convergences during underwater prey capture. Snakes are a good model as an aquatic life- Continue reading “Marion Segall’s PhD defense. Water as a driver of evolution: the example of aquatic snakes”
Modelling of an actuated elastic swimmer
M. Piñeirua, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 829 731-750 (2017)
We studied the force production dynamics of undulating elastic plates as a model for fish-like inertial swimmers. Using a beam model coupled with Lighthill’s large-amplitude elongated-body theory, we explore different localised actuations at one extremity of the plate (heaving, pitching and a combination of both) in order to quantify the reactive and resistive contributions to the thrust. The latter has the Continue reading “Flapping elastic plates as a model of fish-like swimmers”
Simple phalanx pattern leads to energy saving in cohesive fish schooling
I. Ashraf, H. Bradshaw, T. T. Ha, J. Halloy, R. Godoy-Diana, B. Thiria
PNAS 114 (36) 9599-9604 (2017)
Synchronisation and collective swimming patterns in Hemigrammus bleheri
I. Ashraf, R. Godoy-Diana, J. Halloy, B. Collignon, B. Thiria
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 13 20160734 (2016)
The question of how individuals in a population organize when living in groups arises for systems as different as a swarm of microorganisms or a flock of seagulls. The different patterns for moving collectively involve a wide spectrum of reasons, such as evading predators or optimizing food prospection. Also, the schooling pattern has often been associated with an advantage in terms of energy consumption. We use a popular aquarium fish, the red nose tetra fish, Hemigrammus bleheri, which is known to swim in highly cohesive groups, to ana- lyze the schooling dynamics. In our experiments, fish swim in a shallow-water tunnel with controlled velocity, Continue reading “Synchronisation and pattern formation in fish swimming”
Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes ?
M. Segall, R. Cornette, A-C. Fabre, R. Godoy-Diana & A. Herrel
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283 20161645 (2016).
Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head Continue reading “Hydrodynamic constraints and evolution of aquatic snakes”
Our last poster in collaboration with Francisco Huera-Huarte from Universitat Rovira i Virgili presented at the APS Gallery of Fluid Motion in the DFD 2015 Meeting.
Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers
M. Piñeirua, R. Godoy-Diana & B. Thiria
Physical Review E 92 021001(R) (2015).
We address here a crucial point regarding the description of moderate to high Reynolds numbers aquatic swimmers. For decades, swimming animals have been classified in two different families of propulsive mechanisms based on the Reynolds number: the resistive swimmers, using local friction to produce the necessary thrust force for locomotion at low Reynolds number, and the reactive swimmers, lying in the high Reynolds range, and using added mass acceleration (described by perfect fluid theory). Continue reading “Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers”
Centrifugal instability of Stokes layers in crossflow: the case of a forced cylinder wake
J. D’Adamo, R. Godoy-Diana & J. E. Wesfreid
Proceedings of the Royal Society A 471: 20150011 (2015).
A circular cylinder oscillating in a viscous fluid produces an axisymmetric Stokes layer, a fundamental flow susceptible to centrifugal instabilities [see e.g. Seminara & Hall, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 350, 299 (1976)]. In the present work we study such problem in the wake flow around a circular cylinder at Re = 100 performing rotary oscillations. Continue reading “Centrifugal instability of Stokes layers in crossflow”
Four-winged flapping flyer in forward flight
R. Godoy-Diana, P. Jain, M. Centeno, A. Weinreb & B. Thiria
In Klapp et al. (eds.), Selected Topics of Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Environmental Science and Engineering, pp. 147-158. Springer (2015).
We study experimentally a four-winged flapping flyer with chord-wise flexible wings in a self-propelled setup. For a given physical configuration of the flyer (i.e. fixed distance between the forewing and hindwing pairs and fixed wing flexibility), we explore the kinematic parameter space constituted by the flapping frequency and the forewing-hindwing phase lag. Continue reading “Four-winged flapping flyer in forward flight”
We study experimentally the propulsive dynamics of flexible undulating foils in a self-propelled swimming configuration near a wall. Measurements of swimming speed and propulsive force are performed, together with full recordings of the elastic wave kinematics and particle image velocimetry. Continue reading “Undulatory swimming near a wall”
Bio-inspired swimming and flying – Vortex dynamics and fluid/structure interaction
Habilitation à diriger des recherches, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2014.
The present document, prepared in view of obtaining the Habilitation à diriger des recherches, reviews my main research subject at PMMH since 2006, which concerns the study of swimming and flying inspired by nature. Canonical examples of flapping flight and undulatory swimming are explored using simplified experimental models as a starting point. This allows for the discussion of some fundamental questions related to the physics of bio-inspired locomotion at “intermediate” Reynolds numbers. In particular, we address the strong fluid-structure interactions that arise in these problems, where we have focused on: simplified models of flapping foils in hydrodynamic tunnel experiments, especially in the dynamics of vorticity in the wake of an oscillating foil ; mechanical models of flapping flyers with flexible wings in a self-propelled configuration (in the spirit of the pioneer experiments of Etienne-Jules Marey), as well as novel experimental models of undulatory swimming.
Continue reading “Habilitation à diriger des recherches (HDR)”
Elastic swimmer on a free surface
S. Ramananarivo, B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana.
Physics of Fluids, 26: 091112 (2014)
*31st Annual Gallery of Fluid Motion (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2013)
During cruising, the thrust produced by a self-propelled swimmer is balanced by a global drag force. For a given object shape, this drag can involve skin friction or form drag, both being well-documented mechanisms. However, for swimmers whose shape is changing in time, the question of drag is not yet clearly established. Continue reading “Drag in undulatory swimmers”
Confined geometries usually involve reflected waves interacting together to form a spatially stationary pattern. Our recent study on the locomotion of a self-propelled elastic swimmer on a free surface [Ramananarivo et al. 2013], however, has shown that propagating wave kinematics can naturally emerge in a forced elastic rod, even with boundary conditions involving significant reflections. This particular behavior is observed only in the presence of strong damping. Continue reading “Propagating waves in bounded elastic media”
PhD defense on January 10, 2014 at ESPCI
Propulsion biomimétique de structures élastiques
Birds and aquatic animals exploit the surrounding fluid to propel themselves in air or water. In inertial regimes, the mechanisms of propulsion are based on momentum transfer; by flapping wings or fins, animals accelerate fluid in their wake, creating a jet that propels them forward. The structures used to move can be flexible, and are thus likely to experiment large bending. Literature showed that those passive deformations can improve propulsive performance, when exploited in a constructive way. The mechanisms at play however remain poorly understood. In the present thesis, we aim at studying how a flapping elastic structure generates thrust, using two experimental biomimetic models. The first setup is a simplified mechanical insect with flexible wings, and the second one is a swimmer whose elastic body mimics the undulating motion of an eel. We show that propulsive performance is significantly influenced by the way the systems passively bend, and that their elastic response can be described by simplified theoretical models of forced oscillators. Those models also bring forward the crucial role of the quadratic fluid damping that resists the flapping motion. This result introduces the counter-intuitive idea that it is sometimes desirable to dissipate part of the energy in the fluid, in order to improve performance.
Christophe Clanet (Rapporteur)
Christophe Eloy (Rapporteur)
Yves Couder (Président)
Emmanuel de Langre (Examinateur)
Jean-Marc Di Meglio (Examinateur)
Ramiro Godoy-Diana (Directeur de Thèse)
Benjamin Thiria (Directeur de Thèse)
Abstract: Swimmers in nature use body undulations to generate propulsive and maneuvering forces. The an- guilliform kinematics is driven by muscular actions all along the body, involving a complex temporal and spatial coordination of all the local actuations. Such swimming kinematics can be reproduced artificially, in a simpler way, by using passively the elasticity of the body. Here we present experiments on self-propelled elastic swimmers at a free surface in the inertial regime. Continue reading “Passive elastic mechanism to mimic fish-muscles action in anguilliform swimming”
Abstract: It is known that the wake pattern observed in a cross-section behind swimming or flying animals is typically characterized by the presence of periodical vortex shedding. However, depending on species, propulsive wakes can differ according to the spatial ordering of the main vortex structures. We conducted a very precise experiment to analyse the role of the topology of the wake in the generation of propulsion by comparing two prototypical cases in a quasi-two-dimensional view. Continue reading “Topology-induced effect in biomimetic propulsive wakes”
G. Bimbard, D. Kolomenskiy, O. Bouteleux, J. Casas & R. Godoy-Diana.
Journal of Experimental Biology, 216 : 3551-3563 (2013).
Abstract: Up to now, the take-off stage remains an elusive phase of insect flight relatively poorly explored compared to other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in the force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking-off from the ground. Continue reading “Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly”
Abstract: The wake of a flexible foil undergoing pitching oscillations in a low-speed hydrodynamic tunnel is used to examine the effect of chordwise foil flexibility in the dynamical features of flapping-based propulsion. Continue reading “Stabilizing effect of flexibility in the wake of a flapping foil”
Abstract: The wake of a circular cylinder performing rotary oscillations is studied using hydrodynamic tunnel experiments at $Re=100$. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry on the mid-plane perpendicular to the axis of cylinder is used to characterize the spatial development of the flow and its stability properties. Continue reading “Spatiotemporal spectral analysis of a forced cylinder wake”
Rather than resonance, flapping wing flyers may play on aerodynamics to improve performance
S. Ramananarivo; R. Godoy-Diana & B. Thiria.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 108 (15): 5964-5969 (2011).
Abstract: Saving energy and enhancing performance are secular preoccupations shared by both nature and human beings. In animal locomotion, flapping flyers or swimmers rely on the flexibility of their wings or body to passively increase their efficiency using an appropriate cycle of storing and releasing elastic energy. Despite the convergence of many observations pointing out this feature, the underlying mechanisms explaining how the elastic nature of the wings is related to propulsive efficiency remain unclear. Here we use an experiment with a self-propelled simplified insect model allowing to show how wing compliance governs the performance of flapping flyers. Continue reading “Behind the performance of flapping wing flyers”
PhD defense on January 14th, 2011 at Amphi Langevin, ESPCI
Dynamique tourbillonnaire dans le sillage d’un aileron oscillant: Propulsion par ailes battantes biomimétiques
This thesis deals with the fundamental mechanisms implied in flapping based propulsion systems. We use a simplified model, which consists of a flapping foil, placed in a hydrodynamic tunnel. This set up allows us to establish a framework for the analyse of wakes produced. Particularly, we are interested with the influence of the foil flexibility on these wakes. We define a 2D phase space (frequency and amplitude of the flapping), in which we identify three main flow regimes, associated with three vortices wake type. The PIV technique allows us to precisely analyse and quantify the physical and geometrical parameters of the observed wakes. The mean force is estimated for each regime, using a standard momentum balance. We localise then the drag-propulsion transition in our phase space. We show that the propulsive performance of flexible foils is superior to that of the rigid foil, and we suggest some explanations to explain this result.
Olivier Doaré (Examinateur) ENSTA, Palaiseau
Marie Farge (Examinatrice) ENS, Paris
Stéphane Popinet (Rapporteur) NIWA, New Zealand
Lionel Schouveiler (Rapporteur) IRPHE, Marseille
José Eduardo Wesfreid (Directeur de thèse) PMMH, Paris
Ramiro Godoy-Diana (Co-Directeur de thèse) PMMH, Paris
Abstract: We study experimentally the impulse response of a cylinder wake below the critical Reynolds number of the Bénard-von Kármán instability. In this subcritical regime, a localized inhomogeneous region of convective instability exists which causes initial perturbations to be transiently amplified. The aim of this work is to quantify the evolution resulting from this convective instability using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry in a hydrodynamic tunnel experiment. Continue reading “Impulse response in the subcritical cylinder wake”
How wing compliance drives the efficiency of self-propelled flapping flyers
B. Thiria & R. Godoy-Diana.
Physical Review E, 82 : 015303(R) (2010).
*arXiv preprint blogged in MIT Technology Review (March 2, 2010)
*Also referenced in Vir. J. Bio. Phys. Res. / Volume 20 / Issue 3 / (August 1, 2010)
Abstract: Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping-wing flyers. Here, we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a ”merry go roun” to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Continue reading “Bending to fly”
A model for the symmetry breaking of the reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street produced by a flapping foil
R. Godoy-Diana; C. Marais; J. L. Aider & J. E. Wesfreid.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 622 : 23-32 (2009).
Abstract: The vortex streets produced by a flapping foil of span-to-chord aspect ratio of 4:1 are studied in a hydrodynamic tunnel experiment. In particular, the mechanisms giving rise to the symmetry breaking of the reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street that characterizes fish-like swimming and forward flapping flight are examined. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements in the mid-plane perpendicular to the span axis of the foil are used to characterize the different flow regimes. Continue reading “Symmetry breaking of the reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street”
Abstract: We study experimentally the vortex streets produced by a flapping foil in a hydrodynamic tunnel, using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. An analysis in terms of a flapping frequency-amplitude phase space allows the identification of (i) the transition from the well-known Bénard-von Kármán (BvK) wake to the reverse BvK vortex street that characterizes propulsive wakes, and (ii) the symmetry breaking of this reverse BvK pattern giving rise to an asymmetric wake. Continue reading “Transitions in the wake of a flapping foil”
Abstract: Performance of wave-energy devices of the oscillating water column (OWC) type is greatly enhanced when a resonant condition with the forcing waves is maintained. The natural frequency of such systems can in general be tuned to resonate with a given wave forcing frequency. In this paper we address the tuning of an OWC sea-water pump to polychromatic waves. We report results of wave tank experiments, which were conducted with a scale model of the pump. Continue reading “Tuning a wave-energy-driven OWC seawater pump to polychromatic waves”
Internal gravity waves in a dipolar wind: a wave–vortex interaction experiment in a stratified fluid
R. Godoy-Diana; J. M. Chomaz & C. Donnadieu.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 548 : 281-308 (2006).
Abstract: An experimental study on the interaction of the internal wave field generated by oscillating cylinders in a stratified fluid with a pancake dipole is presented. The experiments are carried out in a salt-stratified water tank with constant Brunt–Väisälä frequency ($N$). Experimental observations of the deformation of the wave beams owing to the interaction with the dipole are presented. Continue reading “Internal gravity waves in a dipolar wind”
Vertical length scale selection for pancake vortices in strongly stratified viscous fluids
R. Godoy-Diana; J. M. Chomaz & P. Billant.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 504 : 229-238 (2004).
Abstract: The evolution of pancake dipoles of different aspect ratio is studied in a stratified tank experiment. Two cases are reported here for values of the dipole initial aspect ratio $\alpha_0 = L_v/L_h$ (where $L_v$ and $L_h$ are vertical and horizontal length scales, respectively) of $\alpha_0 = 0.4$ (case I) and $\alpha_0 = 1.2$ (case II). Continue reading “Vertical length scale selection for pancake vortices in strongly stratified viscous fluids”
I did my PhD at LadHyX during 2000-2004 supervised by Jean-Marc Chomaz. My dissertation was an experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of pancake vortices and their interaction with internal gravity waves in a strongly stratified fluid.
Abstract. Stably stratified fluids give rise to distinct internal wave modes and potential vorticity modes (PV). The timescales relevant to these two types of motion separate when the stratification is strong: Internal waves propagate on a fast timescale based on the buoyancy frequency (TN = N-1) while a slower timescale in terms of the horizontal advection —TA = Lh/U, where Lh and U are the horizontal length scale and mean velocity of the horizontal motions— characterizes the evolution of vortices. An illustration of the difference between these two modes can be observed in turbulent regions decaying in presence of background stable stratification : As vertical motions are suppressed, energy is either radiated as internal waves, which propagate away from the initially turbulent region, or transferred to horizontal advective motions which are finally organized as patches of potential vorticity. This thesis presents a theoretical and experimental study of the interaction between pancake vortices (representing the PV mode) and internal gravity waves in a strongly stratified fluid, and of the diffusive mechanisms of pancake vortices.
Document indexed at https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00007046/
Abstract: An asymptotic analysis of the equations for quasi-two-dimensional flow in stratified fluids is conducted, leading to a model for the diffusion of pancake-like vortices in cyclostrophic balance. This analysis permits one to derive formally the model for the diffusion of an axisymmetric monopole proposed by Beckers et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 433, 1 (2001)], and to extend their results. The appropriate parameter for the perturbation analysis is identified as the square of the vertical Froude number Fv=U/(Lv N), where U is the horizontal velocity scale, N is the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, and Lv the vertical length scale. Continue reading “Diffusion of pancake-like vortices in cyclostrophic balance”