Four-winged flapping flyer in forward flight
R. Godoy-Diana, P. Jain, M. Centeno, A. Weinreb & B. Thiria
In Klapp et al. (eds.), Selected Topics of Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Environmental Science and Engineering, pp. 147-158. Springer (2015).
We study experimentally a four-winged flapping flyer with chord-wise flexible wings in a self-propelled setup. For a given physical configuration of the flyer (i.e. fixed distance between the forewing and hindwing pairs and fixed wing flexibility), we explore the kinematic parameter space constituted by the flapping frequency and the forewing-hindwing phase lag.
Cruising speed and consumed elec- tric power measurements are performed for each point in the ( f, φ) parameter space and allow us to discuss the problem of performance and efficiency in four-winged flapping flight. We show that different phase-lags are needed for the system to be opti- mised for fastest flight or lowest energy consumption. A conjecture of the underlying mechanism is proposed in terms of the coupled dynamics of the forewing-hindwing phase lag and the deformation kinematics of the flexible wings.